This is an out-of-date document, which has been preserved for historical reasons only.
If you wish to provide official information on a laboratory or some other organizational unit, please contact the responsible person there; if you are that person, please contact Webmaster for arrangements. There are some general guidelines (in Finnish) as regards to content. For the technical part, you can follow the instructions given here, providing the information first as a private person and moving or copying the information to a suitable "official place" later on.
The URL of this document is
If you want to set up a WWW server you can get some technical assistance from the HUT Computing Centre, especially from Webmaster who will link information on your server to the HUT main server.
However, most users are not interested in setting up a WWW server,
since they can make use of existing servers. In practice this means
that they will just put their documents onto the disk of the
HUT main WWW server,
managed by the
This server runs on a Unix machine to which no direct user logins are
allowed, but it effectively shares
a relevant part of the file system with
Unix systems of the Computing Centre,
such as Vipunen and
the Alphas (named Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta).
This means that you can use
any of those computers
for creating and updating your WWW pages.
Some knowledge about Unix
is required, but knowing just a few commands and the basic use
of the Emacs editor is sufficient.
To put information onto WWW, you can work as follows:
public_htmlfor you and set up directory protections appropriately as well as make it accessible via
public_htmldirectory (with suitable protections). Of course, in order to be able to read them other people need to know their WWW addresses, called URLs, or, alternatively, other WWW documents which they can access must contain links to your documents.
public_htmldirectory. Note that the name of this directory contains an underscore (
_), not hyphen (
There are some rules according to which
the contents of files
are interpreted on WWW.
For example, a file with a name ending with
.html is interpreted as a genuine WWW document
(written in the
HTML document description language), and
a file with a name ending with
is interpreted as a picture in the GIF format.
If your document is "plain text" to be shown exactly as written,
you can use a file name ending e.g. with
For further details on the effect of the file name ending,
please consult the local
on Mime media types.
For example, if you have a document called
in your home directory, you would give the command
mv abstract.txt public_htmlto move it into the
If you want to start writing a new document, you could just
change your working directory to
with the command
cd public_html, and start
writing the document with Emacs (or some other editor).
In this case the document will be on WWW from the very
beginning and other people may access it while you compose it;
if this is not desirable, you can of course first create the document
into your home directory and move it when it is ready.
Having put a document onto WWW, you can immediately check the situation by viewing it using some WWW browser program (such as Netscape, Internet Explorer, Lynx, or Opera) and giving a URL of the form
is your user id (the one you type when you log on) and
filename is the name of the file you have put into
public_html directory. Notice that you only give
the relative file name within that directory.
In fact, the WWW server
www.hut.fi has been configured
so that all of the following forms can be used
and you could use the one you prefer when announcing your pages. (But please avoid the last alternative, since it may cause confusion.)
Assuming that the file name is
abstract.txt as in the
example above and that your user id is
could give the address
to your WWW browser
to check that document is really there, on WWW.
If it is a plain text document, it will be displayed exactly as written,
using monospaced ("teletype") font, with the same division into lines
as is used in the file itself. This, of course, is very primitive;
for instance, headings are not displayed prominently, and the document
presentation does not adjust to the width of the browser window.
<A HREF... which are used for creating links to other documents. Basically an HTML document contains normal text and special markup notations so that the markup may e.g. indicate a part of the text as a heading or list item or just emphasized. Markup is also used for indicating paragraph division, inclusion of images, etc.
There are three essentially different ways to produce HTML documents:
.rtfto remind you that it contains information in RTF format. Then you copy the document in that format to of the Unix computers, using e.g. the FTP program. Finally, log on to one of those computers and give the command
use htmltoolsand then the command
If the filename is
test.rtf, for example, the
resulting HTML document created by the program is
and you can then simply put it into your
There is not much to be said about the second approach, i.e. using "HTML editors", in addition to warning against typical editors which produce vendor-specific HTML contructs and misuse standard HTML constructs to create the WYSIWYG illusion (What You See Is What You Get). However, there are some HTML editors which effectively allow you to write HTML in a comfortable way and to have a view (one possible view) of the document as seen on a browser. They might be of some use provided that you know HTML.
In the third approach, i.e. if you directly write your document in the HTML language, the following information is probably sufficient to get started:
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2//EN"> <TITLE>title of the document</TITLE>
<TITLE> ... </TITLE>to specify the title of the document. This title is not a part of the document itself but is displayed separately to the user who is browsing the document.
<P>and </P> around paragraphs. (An empty line in the HTML document does not generate a paragraph break.)
<HR>you can get a separator between major portions of text (typically, a a long horizontal rule).
<BR>to force a line break (but no paragraph break).
>(greater than) or
&(ampersand), they must have a special representation, because if typed as such they are interpreted as parts of HTML markup notations (tags). The representations are:
< > &
<H1> ... </H1>to specify level 1 (top level) headings in the document. Replace 1 by 2 or 3 to specify lower level headings.
<PRE>before such text and the construct
</PRE>after it. (For tabular data in particular, more more advanced markup exists; see e.g. the section on tables in Learning HTML 3.2 by Examples.)
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2//EN"> <TITLE>A simple HTML example</TITLE> <H1>A simple HTML example</H1> <H2>Basic things</H2> <P> This is a paragraph. The line breaks are insignificant within HTML documents, since the WWW browsers do the division into lines. </P> <P> This is another paragraph. </P> <H2>Other things</H2> <P> The less than, greater than, and ampersand characters may cause unexpected effects. In HTML, you must type the ampersand character, the characters lt and the semicolon to produce expressions like x < y. </P> <P> It is a very good idea to put at least your name and E-mail address into every document. The date of the creation or last update may also be very useful later on. </P> <HR> Jukka Korpela, email@example.com<BR> Last update: October 15, 1997.This was just a very short introduction to HTML. You might still wish to write simple HTML documents to get some exercise before studying HTML further.
Next you could read, for instance, the more systematic Introduction to HTML by me or some of other HTML primers. The following list of additional tags is intended to give just an idea of some of the capabilities explained there or in other HTML primers:
<IMG ...>indicates that an image (e.g. photo or drawing) is to be inserted
<STRONG> ... </STRONG>specifies that the text is to be strongly emphasized (typically displayed in bold face by WWW browsers)
</A>causes text to appear in a distinguished manner (typically, underlined or in different color or both) on the screen, and selecting that text (typically, with a mouse click) will lead the user to the document specified by the WWW address URL
<UL> ... </UL>indicates a list so that each list item is specified within them with the prefix
.html, and it makes writing HTML tags somewhat easier. Please consult the original documentation in English or local documentation in Finnish.
It is not necessary to have a personal WWW home page in order to provide information via WWW, but you can use a home page for various purposes:
index.htmland containing an HTML document into your
public_htmldirectory. If you use the Emacs editor as people usually do, just give the commands
cd public_html emacs index.htmlDepending on whether you have used the
www_home_pageprogram or not, you will either start with the "skeleton home page" or with an empty file.
There are instructions both in English and in Finnish for using Emacs. For very short instructions in English, consult the booklet Welcome to the HUT Computing Centre, chapter 7.1. In Finnish there is a separate guide on using Emacs.
Your home page is accessible via WWW using a URL of the form
but the part
index.html may also be omitted.
If you wish to make a link to your personal home appear in the
list of all users' home pages
at the university, you need to give the command
on one of the Unix computers of the Computing Centre. This needs to be done once only, and it will take effect (i.e. your page will appear on the list) next midnight.
Many people have created their own home pages by modifying somebody else's
home page. You can use
the list of users' home pages
to find a nice home page which you like to use as a model.
You can then,
for example (after the command
cd public_html) give the command
cp ~jkorpela/public_html/index.html .
(notice the space and the period at the end of the command!) to get a private copy of
and you can then modify it.
When modifying another user's home page, remember to correct all
information so that it applies to you!
Last update: 2000-02-28