# Math Keyboard layout for QWERTY keyboards on Windows

The Math Keyboard layout supports all characters defined in the international mathematics standard ISO 80000-2 and a small collection of other characters. Most associations are intuitive, based on either the shape of the character (for example, AltGrE produces ∈) or the initial letter of its name (for example, AltGI produces ∆, increment). For some char­ac­ters, key combinations are needed; for example, `R produces the right arrow →. The layout can be used on any QWERTY keyboard, but it works best on a US keyboard.

The layout delivered as a zipped file. Unzip it and run the setup.exe file; the installation may take a minute or so. Consult Windows Help for information on assigning shortcuts to keyboard layouts, so that you can switch between layouts with keyboard commands.

## Character repertoire

For the main set of characters supported by the layout, see Mathematical symbols in ISO 80000-2 – a test page. The use of these characters is described in detail in the e-book Writing Mathematical Expressions.

Some additional characters are included, due to their common use or due to a natural assigment to a key. In particular, all superscript and subscript digits can be typed using the normal keys 0 1 2… together with AltGr (“right alt”) for superscripts and Shift AltGr for subscripts.

## US keyboard as reference

This description of the layout uses the common US keyboard as a frame of reference. You can use it on any QWERTY keyboard, but you need to take differences in account when interpreting the instructions. For example, a reference to the grave (backtick) key ` means the key in the upper left corner of the keyboard. In non-US keyboards, the key may well have other engravings than the US keyboard, which has the grave (`) and the tilde (~) there.

The layout is somewhat more difficult to use on non-US keyboards, because you need to remember some differences. For example, the key that produces the minus sign (−) is the one on the right of the 0, with the hyphen engraved on it on US keyboards, so we denote it by - but it has for example the plus sign (+) in some other keyboards. In that case, the user needs to remember that the plus key produces the minus sign. If this is too awkward, consider creating a variant of this layout, adapted to the physical keyboard you use.

## Key principles

• Most keys have their normal meanings as in US keyboards, when used as such or with the Shift key.
• Some keys produce a mathematical symbol similar to the character they produce on US keyboards. For example, the hyphen key - produces the minus sign (−). There is normally no use for a hyphen in a mathematical expression. Similarly, Shift 7, which produces & on a US keyboard, produces logical and, ∧. and the \ produces set minus.
• Superscript and subscript digits can be typed using the keys 0 1 2… together with AltGr (“right alt”) for superscripts and Shift AltGr for subscripts. Superscript minus and plus can be typed similarly using the two keys to the right of digit keys, - and =.
• Double-struck symbols like ℕ are produced using Shift AltGr and a letter key.
• The key in the upper left corner, which is the grave (backtick) key ` in the US keyboard, is used as as escape mechanism: when you press first that key, then some other key (possibly modified with the Shift key, a special character somehow associated with the character that appears in the key cap of the the latter key. For example, ` N produces the NOT SIGN (¬).

## Notes

The Math Keyboard layout was implemented using the Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator (MSKLC) on (32-bit) Windows 7.

The layout contains only a two Greek letters: π as AltGr Shift D and δ as AltGr P. Greek letters can be conveniently typed using the standard Greek keyboard layout in Windows. If you use it on a QWERTY keyboard, the A key produces α, the B key produces β, etc., with just a few non-obvious assignments: θ ≘ U, η ≘ H, ξ ≘ J, χ ≘ X, ψ ≘ C, ω ≘ V.

## Table of key assignments

Unicode name (identifier) Glyph Key seq.Number
ALMOST EQUAL TO `` U+2248
APPROXIMATELY EQUAL TO `A U+2245
ASTERISK OPERATOR Shift8 U+2217
ASYMPTOTICALLY EQUAL TO `ShiftA U+2243
BLACK-LETTER CAPITAL Z AltGrZ U+2128
CIRCLED TIMES AltGrShiftX U+2297
COLON EQUALS AltGr; U+2254
COMPLEMENT AltGrC U+2201
CONTOUR INTEGRAL` C U+222E
CORRESPONDS TO ` 6 U+2259
DEGREE SIGN ° AltGrO U+00B0
DIVIDES AltGr\ U+2223
DOT OPERATOR ` X U+22C5
DOUBLE INTEGRAL` J U+222C
DOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL C AltGrShiftC U+2102
DOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL N AltGrShiftN U+2115
DOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL P AltGrShiftP U+2119
DOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL Q AltGrShiftQ U+211A
DOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL R AltGrShiftR U+211D
DOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL Z AltGrShiftZ U+2124
DOWNWARDS ARROW ` D U+2193
DOWNWARDS DOUBLE ARROW `ShiftD U+21D3
ELEMENT OF AltGrE U+2208
EMPTY SET `E U+2205
EQUAL TO BY DEFINITION AltGrShift; U+225D
FINITE PART INTEGRAL AltGrF U+2A0D
FOR ALL AltGrShiftA U+2200
GREATER-THAN OR EQUAL TO AltGr. U+2265
GREATER-THAN SIGN > Shift. U+003E
GREEK SMALL LETTER DELTAδ AltGrShiftD U+03B4
GREEK SMALL LETTER PIπ AltGrP U+03C0
HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS AltGr' U+2026
IDENTICAL TO AltGrQ U+2261
INCREMENT AltGrI U+2206
INFINITY AltGrShiftI U+221E
INTEGRALAltGrJU+222B
INTERSECTION AltGrY U+2229
LEFT CEILINGAltGrShift[ U+2308
LEFT FLOORAltGr[ U+230A
LEFT RIGHT ARROW ` B U+2194
LEFT RIGHT DOUBLE ARROW ` ShiftB U+21D4
LEFTWARDS ARROW ` L U+2190
LEFTWARDS DOUBLE ARROW ` ShiftL U+21D0
LESS-THAN OR EQUAL TO AltGr, U+2264
LESS-THAN SIGN < Shift, U+003C
LOGICAL AND Shift7 U+2227
LOGICAL OR AltGrV U+2228
MATHEMATICAL LEFT ANGLE BRACKET` [ U+27E8
MATHEMATICAL RIGHT ANGLE BRACKET` ] U+27E9
MIDLINE HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS AltGrShift' U+22EF
MINUS SIGN-U+2212
MINUS-PLUS SIGN` = U+2213
MUCH GREATER-THAN AltGrShift, U+226B
MUCH LESS-THAN AltGrShift. U+226A
MIDLINE HORIZONTAL ELLIPSIS AltGrShift' U+22EF
MULTIPLICATION SIGN × AltGrX U+00D7
NABLA AltGrN U+2207
N-ARY INTERSECTION AltGrShiftY U+22C2
N-ARY PRODUCT ` P U+220F
N-ARY SUMMATION AltGrS U+2211
N-ARY UNION AltGrShiftU U+22C3
NOT AN ELEMENT OF ` ShiftE U+2209
NOT EQUAL TO Shift3 U+2260
NOT SIGN ¬ ` N U+00AC
PARALLEL TO AltGrShift\ U+2225
PARTIAL DIFFERENTIALAltGrD U+2202
PER MILLE SIGN ` 5 U+2030
PERPENDICULAR TO `\ U+27C2
PLUS SIGN+ Shift= U+002B
PLUS-MINUS SIGN± ` - U+00B1
PRIME 'U+2032
PROPORTIONAL TO ` ShiftP U+221D
RIGHT CEILINGAltGrShift] U+2309
RIGHT FLOORAltGr] U+230B
RIGHTWARDS ARROW ` R U+2192
RIGHTWARDS ARROW FROM BAR ` M U+21A6
RIGHTWARDS DOUBLE ARROW ` ShiftR U+21D2
RING OPERATORAltGrO U+2218
SCRIPT CAPITAL F AltGrShiftF U+2131
SCRIPT CAPITAL L AltGrShiftL U+2112
SET MINUS \ U+2216
SPHERICAL ANGLEAltGrA U+2222
SQUARE ROOTAltGrR U+221A
SUBSET OF ` , U+2282
SUBSET OF OR EQUAL TO ` Shift. U+2286
SUBSCRIPT EIGHT AltGrShift8 U+2088
SUBSCRIPT FIVE AltGrShift5 U+2085
SUBSCRIPT FOUR AltGrShift4 U+2084
SUBSCRIPT MINUS AltGrShift+ U+208B
SUBSCRIPT PLUS AltGrShift= U+208A
SUBSCRIPT NINE AltGrShift9 U+2089
SUBSCRIPT ONE AltGrShift1 U+2081
SUBSCRIPT SIX AltGrShift6 U+2086
SUBSCRIPT SEVEN AltGrShift7 U+2087
SUBSCRIPT THREE AltGrShift3 U+2083
SUBSCRIPT TWO AltGrShift2 U+2083
SUBSCRIPT ZERO AltGrShift0 U+2080
SUPERSCRIPT EIGHT AltGr8 U+2078
SUPERSCRIPT FIVE AltGr5 U+2075
SUPERSCRIPT FOUR AltGr4 U+2074
SUPERSCRIPT MINUS AltGr- U+207B
SUPERSCRIPT NINE AltGr9 U+2079
SUPERSCRIPT ONE ¹ AltGr1 U+00B9
SUPERSCRIPT PLUS AltGr= U+207A
SUPERSCRIPT SIX AltGr6 U+2076
SUPERSCRIPT SEVEN AltGr7 U+2077
SUPERSCRIPT THREE ³ AltGr3 U+00B3
SUPERSCRIPT TWO ² AltGr2 U+00B2
SUPERSCRIPT ZERO AltGr0 U+2070
SUPERSET OF ` , U+2283
SUPERSET OF OR EQUAL TO ` Shift, U+2287
SURFACE INTEGRAL` S U+222F
THERE EXISTS AltGrShiftE U+2203
TILDE OPERATOR Shift` U+223C
UNION AltGrU U+222A
UPWARDS ARROW ` U U+2191
UPWARDS DOUBLE ARROW ` ShiftU U+21D1
VERTICAL LINE | Shift\ U+007C
WHITE SQUARE AltGrW U+25A1